Self-harm is the non-fatal intentional acts of self-poising or...
Back to the issue that has been highly researched over the recent years, self-harming behaviour. As discussed in previous article, there has been a large amount of research investigating the possible successful or not so successful interventions when it comes to the self-harming behaviour.
Another therapeutic intervention usually mentioned by the literature is Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. One mechanism via which mindfulness based techniques are hoping to have an impact on such behaviours is through a reduction in experiential avoidance. Experiential avoidance is a key construct in ACT, and it is defined as the attempt to alter the form, frequency, or situational sensitivity of negative private events (e.g. thoughts, feelings, and physiological sensations). An experiential avoidance model of violence and self-harm postulates that such acts are, in fact, attempts to avoid experiences such as thoughts, feelings, somatic sensations or other internal experiences that are uncomfortable or distressing. A reduction in experiential avoidance is therefore the fundamental goal of ACT.
ACT’s techniques involve intentionally bringing one’s attention to the internal and external experiences occurring in the present moment.
Such interventions have been shown to be of considerable value in a number of disorders, including for psychosis as well as self-harming behaviour in an acute ward setting.
There is a clear evidence base for the efficacy of mindfulness based treatments across various psychopathologies and there is some indication that this may also translate to the use of treatments such as ACT for the management of acute self-harm or violence. The experience of utilising ACT based treatments on a psychiatric intensive care unit has produced some positive results. The studies, however, were not always controlled and each patient undergoing the intervention was also subject to treatment as usual (i.e. standard pharmacological therapies as appropriate to their condition) which would also have an effect on levels of aggressive and abusive behaviours and self-harm ideation. More research is, therefore, required to further verify the effect of such interventions with controlled trials across wider samples using validated outcome measures.
Another technique is the Volitional Help Sheet which is proved to have no overall effect on self-harming individuals. However, on post-hoc analyses it is suggested that VHS might be effective in reducing the number of self-harming repetitions following a suicide attempt in people who complete the help sheet and who have been previously admitted to hospital with self-harm.
There is good evidence to suggest that the VHS helps to focus on the effectiveness of safety-planning and psychosocial risk or even needs assessment alone. On the other hand, VHS can be harmful when used with individuals who do not have a long history of multiple episodes of self-harming.
It appears that VHS can be effective in reducing self-reported self-harm intentions but were proved not to be effective in reducing the proportion of participants engaging in self-harming behaviour.
Moreover, this intervention has the potential to increase rumination and negative affect the person by potentially leading to a repetition of the self-harming behaviour.
A systematic review and meta-analytic review of brief contact interventions such as letters, green cards, telephone calls and postcards has shown that cannot be yet recommended for widespread clinical implementation when it comes to supporting people who have self-harmed. Postcards especially did not reduce the repetition of self-harm in other studies.
Finally, it appears that there is a considerable amount of research around the possible psychosocial treatments for adults who self-harm and an amount of different types of interventions. However, not many interventions have been evaluated in multiple studies and therefore are not amenable to meta-analysis.
According to NICE guidelines, the aims of longer-term treatment of self-harming may be around decreasing or stopping the self-harming behaviour, decreasing or stopping other risk-related behaviour, improving social or occupational functioning; improving quality of life and improving any associated mental health conditions. Furthermore, NICE is recommending an amount of at least six sessions of a psychological intervention specifically structured for people who self-harm. This may include CBT, psychodynamic or problem-solving elements. It is important to work collaboratively with the person to identify problems causing distress or leading to self-harm. Moreover, if stopping self-harm is unrealistic in the short term, it is proposed to consider less destructive or harmful methods of self-harm.
Self-harming is a difficult and very demanding situation for both therapist and patient. Creating a therapeutic a trusting environment is vital no matter the therapeutic interventions being used.
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Read also the 1st part of the article: Deliberate Self Harming & Possible Interventions
Ψυχολόγος - MSc Forensic Mental Health.
Απόφοιτος του Τμήματος Ψυχολογίας του Αριστοτέλειου Πανεπιστημίου Θεσσαλονίκης.
Επιστημονική Συνεργάτιδα του E-Psychology
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Self-harm is the non-fatal intentional acts of self-poising or self-injury irrespectively of the extent of suicidal intent. Self-harming has been a growing problem, it is estimated that there are more than 200000 persons presenting with self-harming in general hospitals over the UK at the moment. Self-harming is most common in younger people aged between 15 to 35 years old and moreover, it appears to be more frequent in women than men and also decreases over lifespan.
Οι άνδρες θύματα έχουν αναφέρει εχθρότητα, αυξημένο το αίσθημα το θυμού, συμπτώματα κατάθλιψης, άγχος και συμπεριφορές πρόκλησης βλάβης στο ίδιο τους τον εαυτό, αίτια της σεξουαλικής κακοποίησης. Οι άνδρες είναι πιθανό να έχουν μια αντίδραση θυμού αμέσως μετά από το περιστατικό, καθώς ο θυμός θεωρείται ο αρσενικός τρόπος αντιμετώπισης του τραύματος.
Η σεξουαλική κακοποίηση είναι ένα πολύ συχνό φαινόμενο, το οποίο πλήττει τόσο ενήλικες όσο και παιδιά, τόσο γυναίκες όσο και άνδρες. Παρόλα αυτά, οι περισσότερες θυματολογικές μελέτες με θέμα τις επιδράσεις της τραυματικής εμπειρίας της σεξουαλικής κακοποίησης επικεντρώνονται ως επί το πλείστον στις γυναίκες και παιδιά θύματα.
Η θυματοποίηση είναι γενικότερα συνδεδεμένη με τη ρουτίνα αλλά και το lifestyle των θυμάτων, τα οποία είναι σε θέση να επηρεάσουν το μέγεθος της έκθεσης τους σε πιθανούς δράστες. Επιπλέον η θυματοποίηση σχετίζεται με το πόσο ευάλωτο μπορεί να είναι το πιθανό θύμα.
Ο βιασμός έχει λάβει ιδιαίτερα υψηλή δημοσιότητα ως ένα πρόβλημα γένους θηλυκού. Ο φεμινιστικός χρωματισμός του, δυστυχώς έχει ως συνέπεια να αγνοούνται οι εμπειρίες σεξουαλικής κακοποίησης των ανδρών.